IMR Press / EJGO / Volume 37 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.12892/ejgo2734.2016
Open Access Original Research
Possible relevance of tumor-related genes mutation to malignant transformation of endometriosis
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1 Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Liaocheng People's Hospital and Clinical Teaching Hospital of Taishan Medical College, Liaocheng, Shandong, China
2 Department of Neurosurgery, Liaocheng People's Hospital and Clinical Teaching Hospital of Taishan Medical College, Liaocheng, Shandong, China
Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol. 2016 , 37(1), 89–94; https://doi.org/10.12892/ejgo2734.2016
Published: 10 February 2016
Abstract

Objective: Despite studies have suggested that endometriosis has malignant potential, the molecular mechanism underlying the malignant transformation of endometriosis is poorly understood so far. Endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer (EAOC) or ovarian cancer arising from endometriosis (OCEM) may provide an ideal model for genetic studies.To investigate the genetic alterations during transformation of ovarian endometriosis into cancer, the authors analysed mutations of tumour-related genes (PTEN and p53) in EAOC cases (n = 23, group 1), including 19 cases which were detected co-existence of endometriosis and cancer and four cases which fulfilled the histological criteria in malignant transformation of endometriosis (OCEMs), and in atypical hyperplasia ovarian endometriosis (aEMs) (n = 10, group 2), as well as in solitary ovarian endometriosis (EMs) (n = 20, group 3), simultaneously, to study the correlation of the two genes in the development and progression of the ovarian endometriosis malignancy. Materials and Methods: Each paraffin block was sliced into serial ten-μm-thick sections. Extracted DNA was amplified by nested PCR. Mutations of PTEN and p53 were examined by bidirectional DNA sequencing. Results: It was acknowledged by experiments that the PTEN and p53 mutation frequency in EAOCs were significantly higher than that in aEMs and EMs. There was significant difference to compare EAOCs with EMs (p < 0.01, p < 0.05), and converse to compare with aEMs (p > 0.05), respectively. No definite involvement between the frequency of PTEN and p53 mutations in EAOCs and age difference, histological type, clinical stage, pathological grade, and whether accompanied by metastasis (p > 0.05); however, a decreasing trend of PTEN mutation with the increased age, decreased clinical stage and pathological grade, and when accompanied by metastasis was detected. Adversely, an increasing trend of p53 mutation was represented. In EAOCs group, the authors detected eight PTEN and four p53 mutation events, respectively. Moreover, one case occurred PTEN and p53 mutation simultaneously. With 23 EAOCs, two cases which fulfilled the histological criteria in malignant transformation of endometriosis, which may be a specific entity distinct from non-endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer, the authors named them the OCEMs, occurred PTEN or p53 mutation, respectively. Conclusion: The present study suggested that the mutation and functional incapacitation of certain tumor-related genes may be involved in malignant transformation of endometriosis. PTEN mutation is the pristine event, but p53 mutation is the late.
Keywords
Endometriosis
Endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer
Ovarian cancer arising from endometriosis
Atypical hyperplasia
PTEN Gene
p53 Gene
Mutation
Nested PCR
Bidirectional DNA sequencing
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