Endometrial cancers (EC) can be assigned to two groups that differ in epidemiology, clinical course, and prognosis. Type I EC is diagnosed in 80% of all patients with EC, the majority of whom suffer from metabolic syndrome. Type I EC manifests a slow course with a favorable prognosis and demonstrates hormonal receptors for estrogens and progesterone, mutations in the suppressor PTEN gene and the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, K-ras, β-catenin, MMR, and in ARID1A. The more aggressive, though less common Type II EC, is associated with several histological types: serous, light cell, and low differentiated carcinomas. Mutations occur in p53, HER2/neu, E-cadherin, and in ERα, which has a poor prognosis. In 2013, four groups of EC were distinguished on the basis of molecular alterations. Studies continue on associating histopathological and molecular alterations in various types of cancer to distinguish the group with the poorest outcome in order to precisely determine prognosis in EC.
Cite this article
Molecular factors in endometrial cancer
1 Department of Perinatology and Women's Diseases, Poland
2 Department of Oncology, Karol Marcinkowski Medical University in Poznan, Poland
Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol. 2019 , 40(2), 190–192; https://doi.org/10.12892/ejgo4526.2019
Published: 10 April 2019
Endometrial carcinomas type I and II