IMR Press / EJGO / Volume 42 / Issue 3 / DOI: 10.31083/j.ejgo.2021.03.2285
Open Access Review
Factors influencing cosmetic outcome of breast-conserving treatment in breast cancer: a narrative review
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1 Department of Surgery, Máxima Medical Center, 5500 MB Veldhoven, The Netherlands
2 Div. Medical Oncology, GROW-School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, 6211 Maastricht, The Netherlands
Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol. 2021 , 42(3), 425–433;
Submitted: 26 October 2020 | Revised: 3 January 2021 | Accepted: 11 January 2021 | Published: 15 June 2021

Background: A deformed breast following Breast-Conserving Treatment (BCT) is influenced by an array of factors encompassing final cosmesis. This overview examines the factors that may influence cosmetic outcome for BCT patients. Methods: Literature search was performed using PubMed and EMBASE databases. Research articles published in English (1990–2018) pertaining to patients that had previously undergone unilateral BCT for breast cancer were included. Results: 42 articles were used for our final analysis that utilized subjective and objective tools to assess cosmetic outcome. Factors can be allocated as patient, tumor, surgery, radiotherapy or systemic therapy associated. Based on significance in both univariable as well as multivariable analysis and frequency of reporting, extensiveness of primary tumor resection, tumor size, tumor location, adjuvant radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy, were the factors affecting cosmetic outcome the most. Conclusions: In this study, we reviewed and discussed several patient-, tumor- and treatment related factors affecting cosmetic outcome. Many different tools, either subjective or objective, are observed worldwide.

Breast-conserving therapy
Breast cancer
Cosmetic outcome
Fig. 1.
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