IMR Press / EJGO / Volume 42 / Issue 4 / DOI: 10.31083/j.ejgo4204101
Open Access Original Research
Does the consumption of pasta, rice and groats affect the risk of cancer of women’s reproductive organs and breast?
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1 Hipolit Cegielski State University of Applied Sciences, Institute of Health Sciences, 62-200 Gniezno, Poland
2 Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, A. Jurasza 2, 85-089 Bydgoszcz, Poland
3 Faculty of Medicine, Collegium Medicum. Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University in Warsaw, 01-938 Warsaw, Poland
4 Division of Developmental Gynecology and Sexology, Department of Perinatology and Gynecology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 60-535 Poznań, Poland
5 Department of Dietetics, Poznan University of Physical Education Faculty of Physical Culture in Gorzów Wielkopolski 61-871 Poznań, Poland
Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol. 2021 , 42(4), 655–661;
Submitted: 5 December 2020 | Revised: 2 February 2021 | Accepted: 9 February 2021 | Published: 15 August 2021

Objetcive: To determine whether the consumption, together with the frequency and quantity of consumption of wholegrain pasta, rice and groats is related to the risk of reproductive and breast cancer among women. Material and methods: Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) covering the 12 months prior to diagnosis was used. It consisted of questions evaluating the frequency of consumption of specific cereal products that may contribute to the development of or protect against malignant reproductive or breast tumours. Results: There were no significant differences between the groups in relation to the frequency of consumption of rice and pasta. Groats were consumed significantly more often by the ill women (women with gynaecologic malignancy) (p < 0.05). However, the ill women consumed smaller quantities of groats, rice and pasta than the healthy women (control group). The healthy women consumed more cereal products and significantly more rice compared to the ill women (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Age was the main factor impacting the incidence of breast and reproductive tract cancer, followed by the consumption of long-grain rice, aromatic rice, and BMI. A higher mean age and BMI was noted among the ill women. The consumption of long rice was higher among healthy women, while the consumption of aromatic rice was higher among women with cancer.

Risk factors
Fig. 1.
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