Exosomes, nanosized lipid bilayer membranous vesicles, are secreted by a variety of cells and contain protein, lipids, mRNA, miRNA, and signaling molecules that participate in intercellular material transfer and information exchange through binding, fusion or endocytosis. Exosomes mediate the gene expression of target cells and regulate pathological and physiological processes, thereby playing a key role in the occurrence and development of various diseases. Accumulated studies has shown that exosomes hold therapeutic potential though their anti-apoptotic and anti-fibrotic roles. They also have been shown to promote angiogenesis, inhibit ventricular remodeling and improve cardiac function, as well as inhibiting local inflammation and regulating the immune response. As such, exosomes represent a new target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This review summarizes the literature in this field to date, including the basic biological characteristics of exosomes, and new progress in the understanding of the mechanisms of their involvement in immune regulation in cardiovascular diseases. In this way, it servrs as a basis for future research and the development of therapeutic exosomes.
Cite this article
New insights into the immunomodulatory role of exosomes in cardiovascular disease
1. Tangshan People’s Hospital, Tangshan 063000, P. R. China
Rev. Cardiovasc. Med. 2019 , 20(3), 153–160; https://doi.org/10.31083/j.rcm.2019.03.528
Submitted: 31 May 2019 | Accepted: 16 August 2019 | Published: 30 September 2019