IMR Press / RCM / Volume 22 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm.2021.01.238
Open Access Systematic Review
Cardiovascular complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19): a systematic review and meta-analysis
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1 Heart Center & Beijing Key Laboratory of Hypertension, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100020 Beijing, P. R. China

These authors contributed equally.

Rev. Cardiovasc. Med. 2021 , 22(1), 159–165; https://doi.org/10.31083/j.rcm.2021.01.238
Submitted: 5 November 2020 | Revised: 4 January 2021 | Accepted: 5 January 2021 | Published: 30 March 2021
Abstract

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) originated in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and rapidly spread worldwide. Herein, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to find the association between COVID-19 and cardiovascular complications. We conducted a systematic literature search of the PubMed and Embase databases from 01 December 2019 to 30 November 2020. We then statistically analyzed the incidence of cardiovascular complications in COVID-19 patients. We included 3044 confirmed COVID-19 cases from 12 studies. The most common cardiovascular complications in COVID-19 patients were myocardial injury (21.2%, 95% CI 12.3-30.0%) and arrhythmia (15.3%, 95% CI 8.4-22.3%), followed by heart failure (14.4%, 95% CI 5.7-23.1%) and acute coronary syndrome (1.0%, 95% CI 0.5-1.5%). The pooled incidence of heart failure, arrhythmia and myocardial injury in non-survivors were 47.8% (95% CI 41.4-54.2%), 40.3% (95% CI 1.6-78.9%) and 61.7% (95% CI 46.8-76.6%), respectively. Also, the data separately showed significantly higher incidence of heart failure and cardiac injury in non-survivors (relative risks = 5.13, 95% CI 2.46-10.7, Z = 4.36, P = 0.017) and (relative risks = 6.91, 95% CI 3.19-14.95, Z = 4.91, P = 0.009). Myocardial injury and arrhythmia were the most common complications in COVID-19 patients. Myocardial injury and heart failure were more common in patients who died, regardless of a history of cardiovascular disease. The incidence of heart failure and myocardial injury were higher in non-survivors compared to the survivors. Accordingly, in addition to basic support, cardiac reactions of patients with confirmed COVID-19 with or without underlying cardiovascular diseases should be closely monitored.

Keywords
COVID-19
Cardiovascular complications
Heart failure
Myocardial injury
Acute coronary syndrome
Arrhythmia
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